Cooled IR Detectors for Remote Sensing and Hyperspectral
Recent advancements in cooled IR detector
technology have led to the rapid development of many
IR remote sensing instruments for a wide variety
of environmental applications, including hyperspectral
remote sensing, space imaging and surveillance. Because
of the extraordinarily high sensitivity of cryogenically
cooled detectors, IR systems have been developed
for imaging in a variety of spectral bands with wavelengths
up to 25µm.
© Laurin Publishing
from the December 2010 issue of Photonics Spectra
High Speed Infrared Cameras Enable Demanding Thermal
Recent developments in cooled mercury cadmium
telluride (MCT or HgCdTe) infrared detector technology
have made possible the development of high performance
infrared cameras for use in a wide variety of demanding
thermal imaging applications. These infrared cameras
are now available with spectral sensitivity in a wide
range of bands. Camera features now include high frame
rate imaging, adjustable exposure time and event triggering
enabling the capture of temporal thermal events. These
performance capabilities and camera features enable a
wide range of thermal imaging applications that were
previously not possible.
Advanced Techniques for Measuring Temperature
or Radiance of Thermally Dynamic Events
Many applications require the collection
of radiometric data of targets with large temperature
differences within the scene or of experiments during
which dynamic temperature changes occur over a short
period of time. This paper introduces new proprietary
techniques that enable the collection of radiometric
data under dynamic conditions.
High-speed IR Camera Captures Images
without Blur: Results Show Benefits of LWIR Spectral
Infrared (IR) cameras can image fast-moving
objects and measure the temperature of any point on an
object without the errors associated with motion blur.
One application is in the study of the thermal characteristics
of tires in motion. Using a high-speed IR camera to observe
tires running on a dynamometer at speeds in excess of
150 mph, researchers can capture detailed temperature
data during dynamic testing to simulate turning and braking
High-performance MCT Sensors for Demanding
Recent MCT Technology Enhancements Yield
Improved Long-wave Infrared Imaging Performance for R&D
Applications. There are a growing number of infrared
photovoltaic 2D focal plane array (FPA) detectors commercially
available for integration into high performance infrared
cameras. Proper selection of sensor technology depends
on the application and systems requirements.
Measuring Cold Object Temperatures
Using Infrared Cameras
For cold targets a LWIR or VLWIR camera
is superior to MWIR. Data and calculations in support
of this position are given in this paper.
Thermal Imaging: 12 Steps Toward Better
If you’re having unscheduled electrical outages
for any reason, the chances are good that you need to look
at how to improve your infrared inspection program. Thermal
imaging is much less about what kind of infrared camera you
use than it is about using the infrared camera you have well.
Here are twelve steps, some simple and others
less so, that will help improve the results you are getting
from this remarkable technology.
Secrets to a Successful
Thermal Imaging Based Building Energy Audit
Today, thermal imaging has become an important
inspection tool for identifying heat loss, energy leaks and
underlying factors that are critical to the energy usage
in a commercial building or home.
This white paper reviews fundamentals of an
energy audit, the different types of infrared cameras that
can be used in energy audits, the use of a blower door to
improve infrared inspections, thermal behavior of windows
Secrets to an Effective Infrared Condition
Monitoring Program: IR Routes
It is widely acknowledged that the most efficient
infrared condition monitoring program is one that has a strong
foundation of well designed and thoughtfully constructed
routes. The key to success in your unique environment is
to understand the six generic types of routes used by thermographers
and where they can be applied.
HotShot Routing Capability:
How It Works
Many PdM technicians are familiar with or are
users of route-based vibration data collectors. Route-based
data collection has proven itself a productive and effective
approach to conducting repetitive inspection of industrial
equipment including rotating equipment, electrical systems
and many other critical production assets. RouteIR combines
a simple to follow in-camera user interface with a powerful
PC database application and automatic multi-page report generation
Improved Safety During
Infrared Inspections of Electrical Equipment
There are 5-10 serious arc flash incidents
every day in North America. These incidents result in approximately
2000 workers being treated in burn centers annually. It is
estimated that arc flash incidents cost organizations hundreds
of millions of dollars. In response to this problem, NFPA
(National Fire Protection Agency) and OSHA (Occupational
Safety and Health Administration) have created guidelines
for operating around energized electrical circuits and following
proper safety practices. Updated just this year, NFPA 70E
now includes specific references to thermal imaging and makes
a number of important clarifications on electrical safety.
Testing Building Envelope Systems Using
Infrared Thermal Imaging
The structures we live and work in are susceptible
to quality and performance problems during construction and
maintenance that can impact performance and may, in some
cases, render them dangerous. Regardless of the building
type involved, infrared thermography can provide remarkable,
nondestructive information about construction details and
This paper discusses the numerous applications
for thermal imaging technology currently being used to inspect
building envelopes. These include validation of structural
details, verification of energy performance (conduction and
air leakage), location of moisture intrusion, and the identification
of structural and system degradation of roofs and facades.
Examples will be given for each application and the basic
conditions required will be discussed.
Locating Levels in Tanks
and Silos Using Infrared Thermal Imaging
Infrared thermal imaging is a powerful tool
for locating and verifying levels in tanks and silos. Other
level indication instruments are often not sufficiently reliable
in many situations, or positive verification of the instrumentation
readings is required. When properly used, thermal imaging
can reveal not only the liquid/gas interface, but also sludge
buildup and floating materials such as waxes and foams. Similar
techniques can be used to locate levels and bridging problems
in silos containing fluidized solids.
This paper discusses the parameters and limitations
that must be addressed, shows techniques that can be employed,
and illustrates the discussions with numerous thermal images.
Guidelines for Performing Infrared Inspections
of Motor Control Centers
Whether it's your first infrared inspection
or you're a veteran with hundreds of surveys under your belt,
it is important to realize that in order to successfully
identify and analyze thermal anomalies, it is beneficial
to understand the operation of the equipment under inspection.
Download this white paper to learn about the
recommended guidelines for inspecting the motor control center
(MCC). The paper describes how to identify key components
and potential problem areas and illustrates both common and
not-so-common thermal anomalies.
Understanding Infrared Camera Thermal
You’ve no doubt purchased a digital camera
sometime over the past few years to replace your old film
camera. Often thermal camera brochures offer list specification
that you, as a user, may never be able to confirm or even
understand. This paper’s objective is to help you simplify
your understanding of how image quality is determined.
Covered are three topics that directly influence
thermal image quality: pixel resolution, thermal sensitivity,
and non-uniformity correction. A number of related topics
are discussed as well.
Integrating Thermography with Your
More and more companies are investing in CMMS
systems to organize the complex task of managing capital
equipment and facility infrastructure whether it is process
or production equipment or building systems like HVAC and
computers. If maintenance practices and investments are to
really pay off, the integration of the two tools is necessary.
This paper discusses techniques useful to integrate
CMMS data into portable thermal imaging cameras and to update
machinery health databases with field data. Specific examples
of doing this in practice are provided.
Advances in Auto Infrared
In-camera field data collection is more productive
than written or voice recorded notes. The advantages of route-based
infrared inspection are described permitting improvements
in predictive maintenance programs. In-camera data logging
ensures that established naming conventions are used and
consistently followed improving the efficacy of training
efforts for multiple operators and overall performance. The
impact on staff hours is discussed as well as program costs
Periodic Route-Based Infrared Inspections
Infrared thermographic inspection is an established
PdM inspection modality. Recent advances in infrared camera
platforms have created a new class of infrared imaging instrument
which incorporates pen-based computing and application-specific
software into a powerful thermal inspection data logger with
many traits similar to mature vibration data collection systems.
The potential impact of this integration on
productivity, thermography program ROI, training and integration
of thermal inspection data with CMMS systems is described
NFPA 70E, Arc Flash Best Practices
Estimates indicate that 10-15 serious arc-flash
incidents; those that result in burn injuries requiring treatment
in a burn center, occur each day in the U.S., so it is not
surprising that awareness of the hazards associated with
arc flash continues to grow. Concerns about operator safety
are causing inspectors of high voltage switchgear to adopt
new practices and new equipment.
We will examine the impact of new safety practices
and how infrared transparent windows can be used to mitigate
some of the risks of arc flash. In this regard, considerations
are given to safe and efficient thermography practices.
Update on NFPA-70E and Impact
There continues to be a great deal of activity
surrounding the update to NFPA 70E scheduled to be published
in October 2008. For the proposed 2008 edition of NFPA 70,
National Electrical Code® (NEC®), the Technical Correlating
Committee (TCC) received 3,668 proposals and 3,206 comments
during the revision cycle. For those of us involved in working
with energized electrical circuits the outcome of the new
standards will likely impact how we do our job. The goal
is to increase safety through well thought through practices.
Sample Multi-page Report with Hotshot
Save time, save money and get more consistent
results with ReportIR. This paper is an actual sample 18-page
report performed using ReportIR software integrated in our
HotShot HD camera.
See many of the included features such as detailed
inspection summaries, incident specific temperature analysis,
and customization to make your own report templates. As a
result you’ll save hours on report writing using ReportIR
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New Range, Resolution and FOV Calculator
Determine the optimum camera and lens
combination for your application. Select from a range
of infrared cameras characterized by pixel pitch (e.g.
15µm), array size (e.g. 640x512) and objective
lens focal length. The Calculator has the following features:
- Angular Field of View
- Pixel Field of View (also
known as Instantaneous Field of View)
- Image Dimensional Field of View (projected
image size at a specified range)
- Pixel Dimensional Field of View (projected
pixel size at a specified range)
- Object Detection Range (maximum
range for detection, recognition or identification
of objects having specified size)
EZTherm 880 Spot Size Ratio Calculator
Our Spot Size Calculator for the EZTherm
881 infrared camera helps determine measurement spot
size for different camera specifications and viewing situations.
Guide to Analyzing and Selecting
The best way to begin comparing different
thermal imaging products is to design a matrix that captures
the essence of all the important requirements for your application.
By evaluating the relevance of each item in the matrix, you
can develop an easy way to compare different products when
many features have a different impact on your evaluation.
Without prior experience, you may not be aware of certain
issues that may be important for your application (like NFPA
70E arc flash safety compliance). Consequently, reviewing
this matrix as a guide will facilitate your product evaluation.
Calculate Your Camera's Measurement
Our Spot Size Calculator helps determine measurement
spot size for different camera specifications and viewing
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